-- video [bottom]
Movies and songs?

... with comments?

First time I thought about my life without Russia in 1975.

I didn't want to go to army. And I went to the army. In 1975.

I served in the Central Theatre of the Soviet Army. For a year.

What that was, the line I crossed?

Big deal!

It was a big deal. For me. I understood that they will never stop breaking me up...

This is not a place to write about how the KGB was breaking me in VGIK.

They did -- I wrote "We, Russian People" for the main stage.

It was the 30th anniversary of the victory in BOB, the great Patriotic War.

Russian font: "view" in your browser > encoding > cyrillic (Windows) * Antohins' Page in "Father-Russia" * дневник
[ Электронные библиотеки, объединяйтесь! ] * my &
People Antohins, or People "Antohins"?
What was the nationality of Adam and Eve?
-Russian of course. Why else would they think they're in Paradise when they were homeless, naked, and just had one apple for both of them? (another Russian joke in translation)


1924 : Lydia

1925 : Georgi



1949 : Anatoly


1955 : Olga


1970 : Anton

1980 : the End of my Soviet Life. And Russian one too?

Rambler's Top100

... joke: During his visit to the USSR, Nixon was intrigued by a new telephone capable of connecting with hell. He spoke briefly with the devil, and the call cost him 27 cents. When he came back home, he found out that this same service was now available in the US too. He tried it again and received a bill for $12,000. Nixon was distressed.
- How come?! The same call only cost me 27 cents in the USSR.
- Well, said the operator. Over there it is a local call.
The Soviet Union Under Brezhnev Instigator of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and author of the Brezhnev Doctrine which governed Soviet relations with the rest of Eastern Europe, Brezhnev was the last of the Cold War warriors. This new Seminar Study provides an introduction to a key period in the history of the USSR. The approach is thematic rather than chronological, with sections examining politics and policy under Brezhnev, including chapters on leadership politics, domestic policy, and foreign policy. Additional sections examine economy and society, with chapters on economic performance, demographic and social change, and culture.

* Microsoft is founded (1975)

* Touch tone telephones begin to replace rotary dials

* fear of nuclear war despite dЁ¦tente, SALT treaties

* Yom Kippur War of 1973; Egypt and Israel establish diplomatic relations through Camp David Accords of 1978

* Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. East Pakistan wins independence as Bangladesh. Martial law declared in Pakistan. Indira Gandhi suspends constitution in India

* U.S. expansion of, then withdrawal from Vietnam War. Saigon falls to North Vietnamese forces in 1975.

* Genocide in Cambodia under Khmer Rouge. Pol Pot deposed by Vietnamese troops

* Coup in Chile topples government of Salvador Allende, who is replaced by Augusto Pinochet. Coups and revolutions topple governments of Afghanistan, Argentina, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Nicaragua among others. Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis. Assassination of South Korea's Park Chunghee.

* USSR begins disastrous military campaign in Afghanistan

* Peak of activity of the Japanese Red Army, Red Army Faction, Red Brigades, Symbionese Liberation Army, and Weathermen.

* Funk, Glam rock, Disco, Punk rock, Gothic rock music

* Jamaican reggae music begins to gain an international audience, while dub music influences African Americans in New York City, leading to the development of hip hop...

So, what is important?

What is history?

Immigration began in the 70s -- never ended... Is this the end of Russian history?

"The Russians" -- what they do not remember:

"... The forced exile of the Muslims continued until the first days of World War I: 300,000 Crimean Tatars, 1.2 million Circassians and Abkhazians, 40,000 Laz, 70,000 Turks." *

... Such a pattern of deployment became a rule during the Cold War. In 1970 during the "War of Attrition," a 12,000-strong Soviet expeditionary air defense corps was sent to Egypt to help fight the Israeli air force. None of the officers or troops was told the ultimate destination before they docked in Alexandria, Egypt. The level of secrecy was such that generals, other officers and troops were disguised as civilians, their transport ships supposedly were carrying "farming equipment," the ship captains were allowed to open an envelope containing information on their final destination only after they reached the Eastern Mediterranean, and strict orders were issued to shoot to kill any serviceman who jumped overboard while the transport ships were passing the Bosporus.

... In each of these (secret) wars other parties (including Chinese "volunteers" in Korea, Cuban "volunteers" in Angola and in Ethiopia) were engaged in serious ground fighting and suffered heavy casualties. The Soviet Union provided the hardware and the money, and also used local conflicts to test new weapons in action. (In Vietnam the Russians for the first time used modern plastic explosives for diversionary attacks on US bases.) Soviet specialists in the battle zones reported back to Moscow on technical mishaps and the performance of Western weapon systems. Military designers in Russia improved their weapons based on these reports and modernized armaments often were sent promptly to the front.

Russian military involvement in local wars until the 1980s may be considered to be mostly successful. The casualties were relatively low -- much lower than those of the United States.

But all these successes did not prepare Russia for what it experienced in the 1980s in Afghanistan and, to a lesser extent, in Ethiopia. *

In 1979 Soviet forces marched into Afghanistan with tanks, APCs and regiments of badly trained motorized infantry that turned out to be of no use in swift encounters with elusive guerrillas in the high mountains and hot dusty plains.

It soon turned out that special forces ("Spetsnaz") units, backed up by air-mobile paratroopers and supported by helicopter gunships and attack planes, could relatively easily do the job that a tank brigade with infantry on APCs could never accomplish without heavy losses. The US military had learned that lesson earlier; now it was Russia's turn.

Before the war in Afghanistan, Spetsnaz brigades of the Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) were training primarily for intelligence gathering -- not for combat per se. Soldiers and officers were trained to know the languages of the people of the potential theaters of war to which their unit was designated, so that small units could interrogate prisoners behind enemy lines. The GRU Spetsnaz was trained to be landed deep in enemy territory to gather information and perhaps organize diversions at strategically important targets, but mostly to keep out of sight. There were strict orders (still observed in Chechnya today, and before that, in Afghanistan) that all prisoners, civilian or military, disregarding age or gender, should be executed after investigation and their bodies hidden, so the group could avoid detection.

... The Russians improvised in Afghanistan, but the resistance also constantly improved its tactics and received better equipment. Since only a fraction of the occupying force in fact was operationally active, the rebels and the Russian regulars were basically on a par. The result was strategic stalemate from which the Russians withdrew after suffering some 15,000 dead and more than 500,000 wounded. [ next -- 1980s ]

* I tried to write a world summary for every decade to contrast it with Antohins' history. Until two histories, big and small, merge Russia has no future...

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Index * Shows * Film-North * Theatre w/Anatoly * Theatre Theory * Classes * VIRTUAL THEATRE * Plays * Father-Russia: nonfiction (fragments) + RAT Russian American Theatre * In Russian: plays-in-progress * Cyber 3 Sisters: prod notes * t-blog and Anatoly Blogs - News

Antohins: Generations

1970s -- Family, Century -- Stagnation? What else? Really?
Bored and sad... Lermontov [ text ]

During those ten years everything took place. As if I lived only ten years...

10 years is a long sentence.

"Even if I have no more to live, I lived enough," I said to myself before I defected.

I thought of death, or going to America.

Like Svidrigailov...

When you see [ text ], this is Russian text, which went bad.

On this page was a story about the play "Five Songs About the First Soviets" for 70th anniversary in 1975. About my work in the Party Archives, about Ivanovo, about my realization that I lost my son...

I understood that Anton is not in hands. That he is start his own journey trough the same Soviet desert. Year after year, day after day -- like me and my father before me. Another Antohin, Anton Anatolievich.

In 1975 I left my second family, now my own.

Wife? What wife, if I cannot have my son?

What parents? What am I?

Опять несет мокрым снегом. Гимназистки идут, облепленные им - красота и радость. Особенно была хороша одна - прелестные синие глаза из-за поднятой к лицу меховой муфты... Что ждет эту молодость? [Bunin]

I was twenty six.

Patience, -- said Arbuzov, -- Wait. And in twenty yeras they will publish everything you write.

Twenty years? Twenty?

That old man, he didn't understand that not the unpublished tortured me, but my life now, today!

Twenty years? I can't wait even twenty minutes!

It took another five years, before I left Russia...


... I think I said it to him - I was born when you were born.

I don't think he understood what I said, Anton, my son. He is still young, he will be 35 this 2005 Spring. I will be 56, I am his father. I always will be older than my son. I hope...

He was a baby and I don't like babies. Then he became a boy. Somebody I can relate to. That was the time when I left the family, my family, the family I made...

He was that stranger, who like God gave me a life, like a gift, without knowing it.

I try...

I will have hard time writing the page Anton

“Весело и радостно в клубе имени товарища Троцкого. Большой зал бывшего Гарнизонного Собрания, где раньше ютилась свора генералов, сейчас переполнен красноармейцами. Особенно удачен был последний концерт. Сначала исполнен был “Интернационал”, затем товарищ Кронкарди, вызывая интерес и удовольствие слушателей, подражал лаю собаки, визгу цыпленка, пению соловья и других животных, вплоть до пресловутой свиньи...” [Bunin]

This comrade was comrade Antohin, same, same... It was I sixty years ago, that will I sixty years later...


Russians and East Europeans in America

* According to the 1990 US. Census, 2.95 million Americans are claiming Russian ancestry, but a more realistic view suggests that there are only 750,000 Americans of ethnic Russian descent, which means that they were either born in Russia or have at least one parent or grandparent of ethnic Russian heritage.

Interesting fact: Only 242,000 people have command of Russian.

... I have to keep the facts for another unpublished book about "Russians wihtout Russia" and "Russia without Russians" -- the book is not published, because it wasn't written.

Bunin: Шел через базар — вонь, грязь, нищета, хохлы и хохлушки чуть не десятого столетия, худые волы, допотопные телеги — и среди всего этого афиши, призывы на бой за третий интернационал. Конечно, чепухи всего этого не может не понимать самый паршивый, самый тупой из большевиков, Сами порой небось покатываются от хохота.

Да, я последний, чувствующий это прошлое, время наших отцов и дедов...

“Честь унизится, а низость возрастет... В дом разврата превратятся общественные сборища... И лицо поколения будет собачье...”

He was writing about me, Mr. Bunin.

He left. And I am glad that he did. Read his latest short-stories. Written in France.

[ 20th century: 5 Waves of Immigration from Russia @ bottom ]

... Не знаю, могу ли продолжать писать по-русски, вдруг -- "фонт" (шрифт)преbращается в черт знает что! ...
I heard a voice. It called, consoling... 1917 Akhmatova [ text ]

I despise the light... 1912 Mandelstam [ text ]

[ gone ]

--- May I have some of my comments on the poems, please? Last time I wrote poetry was 1994!

"Progress in developing the education system was mixed during the Brezhnev years. In the 1960s and 1970s, the percentage of working-age people with at least a secondary education steadily increased. Yet at the same time, access to higher education grew more limited. By 1980 the percentage of secondary-school graduates admitted to universities had dropped to only two-thirds of the 1960 figure. Students accepted into universities increasingly came from professional families rather than worker or peasant households.

... In literature and the arts, a greater variety of creative works became accessible to the public than had previously been available. As in earlier decades, the state continued to determine what could be legally published or performed, punishing persistent offenders with exile or prison. Nonetheless, greater experimentation in art forms became permissible in the 1970s, with the result that more sophisticated and subtly critical work began to be produced. The regime loosened the strictures of socialist realism; thus, for instance, many protagonists of the novels of author Yuriy Trifonov concerned themselves with problems of daily life rather than with building socialism."

Personal Politics


Waves of Immigration

The First Wave: Freedom from religious persecution.

The first wave of mass immigration from Russia and Eastern Europe took place in the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century before World War I.

The majority of those arriving were Jews escaping the Pale of Settlement (territory established in 1786 after the division of Poland where Jews were compelled to live).

Many Russian Jews settled in New York and other large American coastal cities. Like previous Jewish immigrants, many of them went into business, and the children of the Russian Jews attended universities in increasing numbers. Russian and other East European Jews differed from American Jews, in that they were maintained a highly orthodox religious practice. Marriage between Jews and non-Jews amongst the immigrants was a very unusual event.

Other immigrants included Russian religious pacifist groups that were in conflict with the Russian Orthodox church. Among them were Russian Molokans and the Russian Old Believers (Starovery).

Russian Molokans. The name "Molokan" originates from the Russian word for milk (moloko) since the members of this group do not refrain from milk and other products during Orthodox fasts. It refers to those who suffered persecution from both the Russian Orthodox Church and the government for their non-traditional beliefs and practices.

Russian Molokans settled primarily in Los Angeles area and later in the Willamette Valley in Oregon. Good labor skills were valued more than formal education. The Molokan community is characterized by isolation from the outside world, strong emphasis on agricultural work, and attendance of frequent religious services called sobraniye.

The Russian Old Believers (Starovery). This name refers to the descendants of Orthodox Russians whose ancestors refused to accept the modern church reforms of the mid-seventeenth century. Many of the Russian Old Believers settled in Oregon and Alaska. Members of the community tend to speak Russian and are normally dressed in clothes reminiscent of the eighteenth and nineteenth century peasantry. In keeping with the Old Rite, three elements given at baptism—the shirt, belt, and cross—must be worn at all times by the faithful. Hence men and boys are seen in the long Russian shirt, or rubashka, girded with a belt. Women and girls lengthen the shirt to form a blouse/slip combination and wear over it a jumper, or sarafan, sometimes with a peasant apron. The Old Believers adhere strictly to the church rituals of prolong fasting periods, long church ceremonies, and do not allow outsiders or those not "in union" to eat with them in their homes or attend church services. In Oregon they have established a primarily agricultural economic base, acquiring land to raise berries and fruit, as well as grain for cattle. In Alaska, Old Believers are successful commercial fishermen and builders of commercial fishing boats.

The Second Wave: Escape from Revolution

The second wave of immigration from Russia began after the Russian Revolution and Civil War of 1917-1921. Violent insurgencies, property destruction, and political radicalism erupted throughout the new Soviet states, forcing almost 2 million to flee. 30,000 came directly to the United States, others settled in France and Germany. Most were former czarist government officials, aristocrats, industrialists, shopkeepers, teachers, lawyers, military personnel, and members of the clergy. Because many of these immigrants came from wealthy ruling class of czarist Russia, they tended to find jobs similar to their former professions, which could be found in the large urban areas like New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, and San Francisco.

The Third Wave: The Promise of America

The third wave came in the aftermath of World War II, during which millions of Europeans, including Russians, were displaced from their homes. This wave brought about 50,000 people from the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe to the United States. Most did not come directly from the Soviet Union. Some had been transported to camps in Nazi Germany during the war; others had fled westward to escape the advancing Soviet Red Army in 1944 and 1945. Others were "White" (anti-Bolshevik) Russians who in the1920s had settled in East European countries (Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, and the Baltic States) that came under Soviet domination after World War II.

After the conclusion of WWII, Western powers, including the United States, were obligated to repatriate (send back) all persons living in Western Europe who had been born in Soviet territory. Initially the United States military authorities in Europe cooperated in the repatriation program, and between 1945 and 1948 2 million Russian refugees were returned to the Soviet Union. There they faced exactly what they feared: many were imprisoned, exiled to Siberia, or even executed. To escape this fate, many Russians claimed they belonged to different Slavic nationalities-anything but Russian.

Many Russian immigrants, who arrived in the third wave and settled in the United States after World War II became the victims of the widespread suspicion that they were Soviet agents and spies, who had infiltrated the Russian émigré community in the United States. Anti-Soviet feelings were on the rise. Congressional investigations, spurred by Senator Joseph McCarthy, on Communist infiltration reached their peak in the early 1950s, and many Russians were wrongly accused of communist activity or sympathies. Whether in Europe or North America, it was not a good time for an immigrant to admit Russian ancestry.

The third immigration wave included Russians from all classes, particularly farm laborers and industrial workers. Most of them, as many other East European immigrants, settled in large American industrial areas like New York and Chicago becoming engineers, educators, government employees, and factory workers.

The Fourth Wave: A Second Exodus

The fourth immigration wave from the Soviet Union represented the struggle of conflicting ideologies and political systems. The main reasons for immigration from the Soviet Union and other East European countries included widespread anti-semitism, tight government control of the lives of ordinary citizens, a difficult economic situation, and the violation of basic rights such as freedom of speech and religious practice.

[ "Immigration Russian way"? -- the normal one, only now, by choice, and they call them the "sausage immigrants"! ]

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Soviet Jews

Many Soviet Jews who wanted to emigrate believed that Russian anti-Semitism was more deeply rooted than the Bolshevik ideology.

Under Soviet rule in 1960s and 1970s, strict government controls made immigration difficult. As many as 400,000 Jews wanted to leave the USSR, but for many years were refused permission to do so, thus earning the name refuseniks. In the détente of the early 1970s, the Soviets agreed to allow as many as 250,000 citizens to emigrate, a move prompted by the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the 1974 Trade act, which demanded that Soviet authorities lift the ban on the immigration of the Jews. In theory, only Jews and Armenians "seeking to reunite" with family members could leave. In practice, many others emigrated, including left-political dissidents, scientists, writers, artists, human-rights activists, and other "undesirables". Unlike the earlier waves of East European Jewish emigrants many of whom spoke Yiddish as their native language, the Russian Jews of the recent immigration spoke Russian and were culturally Russian. Many of them lived in Moscow and Leningrad and other Russian cities.

After Mikhail Gorbachev became the Soviet leader in 1985 and initiated democratic reforms, many Russian political dissidents, the Russian Jews, and other refusniks were allowed to freely emigrate. Democratic reforms in the Soviet Union under Gorbachev reverberated all over Eastern Europe where people also regained their right to freely move and emigrate. By the 1990s, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe settled across major US metropolitan areas like New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Detroit, revitalizing fading neighborhoods, opening businesses, or joining the mainstream American labor force.

In contrast to earlier waves of immigration, many of these newcomers were well educated in technical and scientific fields. An astonishing 55.7% of the newly arrived immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the 1990s described themselves as academics, scientists, professional or technical workers. The younger ones were quickly absorbed into the booming economy of the major American metropolises.

"Советским писателем" я стал быстро -- потому и убежал от этого писателя.

Так испугался, что больше не печатаюсь. Но пишу.

Пишу Книгу Дурака, продолжение "саги антохиных"...


... Afonya : 1975

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